Structural Dynamics System Conversion and Sudden Geological Events and Mineralization
The study of metallogenic conditions and processes of many deposits (Zhai Yusheng et al., 1993, 1997) shows that the transformation of tectonic stress field may play a fundamental role in many parameters restricting the critical transformation of mineralization. This is because tectonics is not only a local ore-controlling factor, but also can control or influence various geological processes (magmatic activity, sedimentation, fluid action, metamorphism, etc.) in a large area. Structural dynamic transformation can also often induce sudden geological events, which in turn can constitute favorable metallogenic environment and conditions.
Volcanic eruption is the result of the interaction between magma and tectonics. The upwelling of deep magma triggers the transformation of tectonic dynamic environment and forms a magma flow and eruption (overflow) channel. Volcanic activity strengthens crust-mantle interaction and leads to a large amount of migration of mineralizing materials and energy, which is an important factor in the formation of ore deposits. The types of ore deposits related to volcanoes include volcanic magma deposits, volcanic (subvolcanic) hydrothermal deposits and volcanic sedimentary deposits. These deposits contain a variety of mineral resources and often form a metal-nonmetallic ore concentration area dominated by volcanic mineralization.
Structural earthquakes are generally caused by faults with a certain intensity and depth. During the process of earthquakes, faults with a certain depth cut through different strata and lithofacies, destroying the previously balanced underground fluid network, resulting in mixing of fluids of different origins and properties and upwelling and jetting of a large number of fluids. Fracturing also promotes the transformation of high-pressure fluid in a closed state into a decompressed boiling state. This of the above-mentioned fluids
Some sudden changes result in the destruction of the equilibrium state between the components in the fluid, new physical and chemical environments and effects, and can induce the mass migration or accumulation of some components. The short-time sudden destruction system (cavity, fractured rock zone, etc.) caused by earthquake is a very low negative pressure area, which has a strong ability to pump and absorb fluids and is a suitable space for ore accumulation.